Rep. Beth Van Duyne, R-Texas, posted a video of Payne getting up from his computer wearing a T-shirt and what appeared to be boxers. Payne lingered in front of the camera with an exposed midsection before leaving the screen.
"Another reason Democrats should get off Zoom and back to work. #TheStruggleIsReal," Van Duyne captioned the video.
Rep. Yvette Clarke, D-N.Y., did not appear to notice and continued speaking, while Rep. Kat Cammack, R-Fla., had to cover her face to hide her surprised reaction.
The video appears to have been taken during Thursday's Homeland Security Committee hearing.
Payne also appeared to be caught sleeping during a virtual hearing of the Aviation Subcommittee of the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure back in March.
Fox News' inquiries to Payne's office and Van Duyne's office were not immediately returned.